Short Stories, Irish literature, Classics, Modern Fiction and Contemporary Literary Fiction, The Japanese Novel and post Colonial Asian Fiction, Yiddish Culture, The Legacy of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and quality historical novels are some of my Literary Interests

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

The Book of Dirt by Bram Presser - 2017

Website of Bram Presser

The Book of Dirt by Bram Presser was the 2018 Winner of the Jewish Book Council Goldberg Prize for Debut Fiction.

The Book of Dirt is a very original work of art centering around the experiences of survivors  of the Holocaust from Prague, relatives of Bram Presser and his efforts to understand family secrets.

There are two primary figures from the Holocaust era.  One is Jakub Rand who was sent to Theresienstsft Concentration Camp.  He was picked by a Nazi intellectual to select Jewish authored books for a museum of extinct people the Germans plsnned to open after they won the war.  The account of his work brought to my mind nonfiction accounts I have read about efforts to preserve Jewish books.  He was what was called a "privledged Jew" because of his work.  He got better food and was, as long as he was needed, exempt from transportation.

Another distant relative is Frautisha Roubietova, a gentile woman who converted to to Judaism upon marriage.  Her marriage failed. When her two young daughters are selected for transport, and certain selection for death upon arrival, she finds a way for the three of them to survive.

Combined with this is the efforts of Bram Presser to discover just how these two family members came to survive.  The ambience of Jewish 
Prague during the Holocaust is brilliantly portrayed.

Presser very skillfully mixes table and history.  There are two villages featured, one with mostly Jews and one inhabited by those who believe as did the Nazis.

The Sidney Herald has a good account of how Presser came to write The Book of Dirt.

Semi-reformed punk rocker, recovering academic, occasional criminal lawyer and one-time cartoon character, Bram Presser was born in Melbourne in 1976. He writes the blog Bait For Bookworms and is a founding member of Melbourne Jewish Book Week. His stories have appeared in Vice Magazine, The Sleepers Almanac, Best Australian Stories, Award Winning Australian Writing and Higher Arc. From Goodreads

Oleander Bousweau

Monday, May 20, 2019

In the Lap of the Gods by Susmita Bhattacharya - A Short Story from Table Manners, 2018

"In the Lap of the Gods", from Susmita Bhatyacharya's award winning debut collection of short stories, Table Manners, begins with a woman from Mumbai recalling her time at a camp for Christians.  When we meet her she is on a train with others bound for the camp.  She reveals she is going there hoping to find a husband, as her friend did.  Her parents are pressuring her to marry.  She has had two bad relationships with men. We see a young woman not really having a secure sense of self. 

Christians are a small percent of believers.  On the train she sees there are followers of numerous faiths.  (The train ride is marvelously rendered). To be a Christian is to be an exception to the norms of India.  She also rejects the idea of an arranged marriage.  She is trying to find not only a husband but her way in life.

She does find love at the camp, but with another woman.  The relationship is more a strongly felt crush than a sexual affair but there are strong sensual forces at play.

"There is no one else in this world. My heart beats to the rhythm of the distance hoots of the owl. My fingers stray to caress your fingers, still tightly wound around the cup of rum. I smell the smoke in your hair, the rum on your breath and I am lost. I feel like time has been suspended. I feel a sense of recklessness, of sweet danger rushing in to envelope us. I’m not sure what I want but you are guiding me. You touch my lips with yours. Ever so softly it may not have touched even. I move forward, pressing firmly into your mouth. But you lean away. You give a little laugh.
‘No,’ you say.
I laugh as well. But I climb out of the bed, unsure of my movements. You pull the blanket up to your neck and snuggle in.
‘Tomorrow,’ you say. That’s all you say. And then I turn off the light and face the wall."

Her friend wants to go to America and become a gelogist.

The narrator knows Christianity is but an infant compared to Hinduism, that the roots of Indian history way antedate that of England and America.  I feel she knows she is only on the shallowest level a Christian.  I found the reflections of the woman on this very profoundly written:

"‘You know, these hills are older than Moses. Older than mankind itself.’
I look around me. The hills glow in the dark. Galaxies swirl above, the stars powdering the sky.

‘The Ghats are older than the Himalayas. They’re more than 150 million years old and go back to the time the earth had one big continent. We are witnessing something to old, so sacred that we must stop and pay attention to it. This is the abode of the Hindu gods. And when I look at this amazing geology, I believe in god’s creation....

They have floated away and we stand there in the dark. I cling to your hand, and we embrace. The ancient mountains bear witness and I feel the shackles falling. I feel so light I could fly. I am not afraid to face my parents again. Actually, I’m not afraid to face myself – I look forward to returning home and being myself. I feel your fingers caress my arm, my desire for your touch increasing as we fall back on the cold, damp grass. I want to return to the real world with you by my side. Yes, that is what I want. But I’m too afraid to think about it. I suppose we will bury our secret here in the in the lap of the Gods, with our desires just fading into memory.
‘Be like these ancient hills,’ you tell me. ‘Stay strong and independent. You do not need a man to complete you, believe me.’

I will leave the close of the story untold.  It is really a powerful work.

In just a few pages we are presented with a young woman unsure of her sexual identify, feeling unsettled in faith and in conflict with her parents expectations.

Years ago when I first began posting on short story collections I followed standard procedures, I would post briefly on a few of the stories then conclude with metaphor laden concluding remarks and issue a recommendation.  Sometime ago I moved toward focusing on individual stories.  If I like a writer as much as I do Susmita Bhattacharya,  I post on numerours of the stories.  This seems more respectful of the writer, better for serious readers and for me also.  Writing about a work seems to increase my understanding and helps me recall the story.

In the months to come I'm planning to feature her work numerous times

From the author's website.

"I was born in Bombay, India in 1974. I did graphic design in college and worked as a web designer. When I married, I quit my job and jumped on board a ship to sail away into the sunset with my husband. After three years of sunrises and sunsets at sea, we decided to come ashore and test our land legs. Destination Singapore. Mandarin classes. Food court delights. French film fests. And when we could no longer stand the chewing-gum ban, we moved to Cardiff, Wales. We threw crisp packets on streets, just because we could. We became students. He a PhD in Maritime Studies, me a Masters in Creative Writing. We did studenty things in out thirties. Open house. Hostel travels. Then we had a baby. Sleepless nights. Sleepless days. I needed an addiction to cope. So I took up writing seriously. I wrote and wrote and wrote. I'm still addicted. Have finished a novel and a collection of short stories. Experimented with flash fiction with second baby on the scene. Still writing. Still on a high! "

This story is part of our ongoing project, Short Stories by South Asian Women.

I am so glad to have discovered Susmita Bhattacharya

Mel u

Friday, May 17, 2019

The Unlikely Adventures of the Shergill Sisters by Balli Kaur Jaswal- 2019

The Unlikely Adventures of the Shergill Sisters by Balli Kaur Jaswal- 2019

Last month I read a delightful novel by Balli Kaur Jaswal,Erotic Stories of Punjabi Widows.  Set in the close-nit Sikh community of London, it focuses on a young unmarried Sikh woman trying to keep her faith while avoiding the tight strictures placed on women of the faith. The woman ends up teaching a class in writing at a community center to Punjabi widows which results in some very erotic stories.  

I was very happy to receive a review copy of Jaswal’s second novel. The Unlikely Adventures of the Shergill Sisters.  In it three sisters, raised in London,from a Sikh family, accede to their mother’s last request, that they make a pilgrimage together to scatter her ashes at The Golden Temple in Amritsar, the holiest of all Sikh centers.  The mother has written some letters telling them what to do on the trip.

(My wife and I have three adult daughters and this increased my preliminary interest in the book.)

The sisters, each with their own very well developed personalities, are not initially enthusiastic about the idea, they have spent some time in India but they  are British subjects and know India will be a shock to their affluent London sensibilities.  I thought Jaswal did a wonderful job capturing the chaos and the sensual overload of urban India. Jezmeen is a struggling actress, just  publicly fired from her TV acting job hoping to break into Bollywood.  In a running gag, she resembles a famous movie star.  She is kind of the rebel of the family. Another sister is a school principal very much a follower of proper behavior.The oldest married into a wealthy family, has a perfect seeming life and is the peacemaker.  She lives in Australia now, under the thumb of her mother in law.

The sisters were never particularly close as children and know they will have to work to get along.

This is a hilarious book with numerous very well done episodes Jezmeen  was arrested at a protest rally, getting her out of jail was a real challenge for the other two sisters!   The girls are British citizens born and raised in London and part of the fun of the book is seeing their reaction to India. The Unlikely Adventures of the Shergill Sisters is very much a spoiled sisters go to India and bond book.  There is a lot to learn about the Sikh faith in The Unlikely Adventures of the Shergill Sisters.  There is a very dramatic and lengthy visit to the Golden Temple, not just a religious site but the cultural home of all Sikhs.

The personalities of the sisters is developed and their are flashbacks to their youth.  The sisters are drawn closer, the real objective of their mother.

This was a lot of fun to read.  


is the author of Inheritance, which won the Sydney Morning Herald’s Best Young Australian Novelist Award in 2014 and was adapted into a film at the Singapore International Festival of the Arts in 2017.Her second novel Sugarbread was a finalist for the 2015 inaugural Epigram Books Fiction Prize and the 2018 Singapore Literature Prize. 

Her third novel Erotic Stories for Punjabi Widows (Harper Collins/William Morrow) was released internationally to critical acclaim in March 2017. Translation rights to this novel have been sold in France, Spain, Italy, Israel, Poland, Germany, Sweden, Greece, China, Brazil and Estonia. Film rights to Erotic Stories for Punjabi Widows have been acquired by Ridley Scott’s production company, Scott Free Productions and Film Four in the UK. Erotic Stories for Punjabi Widows was also picked by Reese Witherspoon’s book club and The Girly Book Club in 2018.
Jaswal’s short fiction and non-fiction writing have appeared in the UK Sunday Express, Cosmopolitan Magazine, The New York Times, Harpers Bazaar, Conde Nast Traveller and Best Australian Short Stories, among other publications and periodicals. She has travelled widely to appear in international writers festivals to conduct workshops and lectures on creative writing, pursuing an artistic career, the power of storytelling, global citizenship and social justice advocacy through literature. A former writing fellow at the University of East Anglia, Jaswal has taught creative writing at Yale-NUS College and Nanyang Technological University where she is currently pursuing a PhD. 

Mel u
Oleander Bousweau 

Tuesday, May 14, 2019

“Repairing Love” - A Short Story by Alexander Spiegelblatt, 2003- translated. by Sean Sidky from Yiddish

1927 - Bukovia, Romania

1964 Emigrated to Israel

2013 - Israel

Yiddish literature effectively came to a close about 2005 with the passing of Blume Lempel, Chava Rosenfarb and now I add to that honor role, Alexander Spiegelblatt. (I know people still write fiction in Yiddish just as scholars write poems in Latin in the style of Ovid but these are just exercises.)

I have said numerous times that there is no culture more deeply into Reading than that of the Ashkenazi.  The intensify with which the Torah was studied was brought by secularized Jews to literary and philosophical studies.

“Repairing Love” meanders through Doctor Tanya Englenest’s memories of meeting her husband for the first time working as an emergency room doctor back in Romania, before she immigrated to Israel.  He did not it seems move to Israel with her and she has just gotten a letter about his dying when hit by a car. He was walking across the street while reading a book and never saw the car.  

Her husband had been brought into her hospital after being beaten by Romanian Anti-Semetic  thugs.

““From that first moment, she had not let him out of her sight. She cared for him as if he were her own, far more than she did any of the other patients they brought in at night. In the morning, she bought him a new pair of glasses, and once his broken hand was set in plaster and his wounds dressed, she took him home herself. Later, she would ask herself repeatedly what she’d seen in him and why it was that she’d treated him like family from the very beginning. But she had no answers.”

This is a marevlously crafted story, we see her husband truly lived, for better or worse and belief me there is a worst, very much a reading life.

I’m getting behind in my posting, and this segment is so marvelous i will share it

“Now the letter transported Tanya back to the moment when she’d entered his home for the first time. Florika, his long-time servant, had been standing in the open doorway. When she saw him covered in bandages she crossed herself, invoking her saints.

He lived alone on a central street in the old city. Not a wall in the four spacious rooms was bare. There were bookcases everywhere reaching to the ceiling: some of the books were behind glass, some behind closed, wooden doors, and some packed into open shelves. No light penetrated the dark, heavy curtains. The stools and benches were piled high with books and magazines; even the enormous writing desk had hardly any clear space on it. In the corner of one of the rooms stood a narrow, unmade sofa bed. Florika had not been able to keep the rooms tidy, and a thick layer of untouched dust covered the furniture and books.

Recalling this, Tanya could suddenly feel, once again, the charged and stuffy air that had hit her nostrils as she’d stepped over the threshold. The rooms both intrigued and revolted her, filling her with respect and fear simultaneously. It was the same feeling she’d had as a student in Vienna, in her first anatomy class. At that time, she’d run away, but this time she could not, and so she stood paralyzed, speechless.
He, on the other hand, who hadn’t opened his mouth the entire time he was in the hospital, now could not keep it shut. For the first time Tanya heard his high-pitched voice: nearly a falsetto. He spoke in Romanian, with a slight Moldavian accent, as if he were a Gentile intellectual deliberately revealing his roots. His words were extravagant, as if he were making up for the hours he’d been silent. He spoke about the Romanian students and their anti-Semitic mentor, Professor A. K. Kuza; he spoke about Jewish and non-Jewish celebrities; and he quoted strange Latin phrases, lines from Pascal, verses from Heinrich Heine, and other French and Romanian poets. He peppered his lofty speech with prosaic phrases like, "you must understand," "as I’m sure you know," "you’ll recall," and "I’d remind you," his voice deepening slightly as he uttered them.”

As far as I can tell, this story Is only translated into English work.  

Alexander Spiegelblatt was born in 1927 in Bukovina. In 1941, he was deported to concentration camps across Transnistria, where he would remain through 1944. In 1964, Spiegelblatt moved from Bucharest to Israel, where he would serve for over two decades as co-editor with Avrom Sutzkever of the Yiddish literary journal Di goldene keyt. He also published eight collections of poetry, a collection of short stories and a novel. Spiegelblatt died in November, 2013.
“Repairing Love,” comes from the 2003 collection Shadows Knock on the Window. All the stories in this collection follow the lives of individuals interrupted by war, death, and the Holocaust. In this case, Tanya’s life is defined by deaths: her father, her son during the Holocaust, and her estranged husband, whose death, announced in a letter, opens the story..from The Yiddish Book Center

Sean Sidky is a graduate student in Comparative Literature at Indiana University, Bloomington. He was a Yiddish Book Center Translation Fellow in 2017, this excerpt comes from his fellowship project. 

My thanks to Mr.Sidky for this translation.  I hope is working on other stories by
Alexander Spiegelblatt.

Mel u

Friday, May 10, 2019

The Brothers Ashkenazi by I. J. Singer - published in Yiddish, 1937, translated by Joseph Singer, 1980

The Brothers Ashkenazi by Israel  Joshua Singer -1937 - translated 1980 by Joseph Singer, the author’s son.

1893 Bitgoraj, Poland

1919 to 1921 resides in Soviet Union

1936 - Moves to New York City

1937 - publishes in Yiddish The Brothers Ashkenazi, translated that same year into English, it was on The New York Times Best Seller list along with Gone With the Wind.

1944 - New York City

A few days ago I began to wonder why there are no books written in Yiddish on any “greatest novels” lists I have seen. For sure The Brothers Ashkenazi belongs on such a list as does The Letters of Menakhem-Mendl and Sheyne-Sheyndl by Sholem Aleichem. The most likely reason is that none of The many list makers have ever read not just these works but any Yiddish literature at all. There were never taught at the schools the list makers attended.  Some of this must be attributed to simple prejudice, some to a Western European bias (I don’t  recall ever seeing a Japanese or Indian novel on a list either).  To this, maybe I will return to this topic later in the year) all i can say more is the pity.

Singer vividly captures ebb and flow of life in Poland’s second city, Lódz, focusing on Jewish Society as seen by events in the lives of two brothers.
We see the city go through numerous transformations, from sort of a giant shtetl where everyone knows each others business and tradition decides fates to a dynamic western industrial and trade powerhouse.  Singer does just a wonderful job showing on Lódz  were impacted by huge spocial transformations brought on my the Russian Revolution.  In a brilliant comic interlude we see how people gradually develop the courage to mock the Czar.  We see World War One sent many residents into Army never to return while others became rich from the war.  

There just is so much in this novel, there are terrible pograms, workers strikes, 
Police repression.  At one point The Cossacks are brought in by White Russian forces to bring order.

One of the brothers has a compulsion  to grow rich through his huge garment factory.  The factory, with thousands of workers, is a snake pit of corruption.  Everybody steals what they can.  I was a bit shocked to learn factory manager kept the owner supplied with rather young girls.  There is much more in this fascinating book.

Irving Howe, a recognized authority on Yiddish society and literature is of great help:

“Singer is dealing here with one of the great themes of the nineteenth-century European novel, a theme especially exciting to Yiddish readers of, say, forty or fifty years ago—the rise of capitalism in its “heroic” or adventuresome phase and the accompanying entry of the Jews onto the stage of historical action, whether through the accumulation of capital which obsesses Max Ashkenazi or through the gathering of rebto leave a mark move along parallel lines. From a traditional Jewish point of view, both styles of conduct must seem equally disturbing and ominous.ellion which forms the goal of his socialist antagonists. If the objectives of these two contending forces are at polar opposites, Singer brilliantly shows how their outpourings of energy, their hungers to to leave a mark move along parallel lines. From a traditional Jewish point of view, both styles of conduct must seem equally disturbing and omnimous”.

ISRAEL JOSHUA SINGER, the older brother of Nobel Prize–winner Isaac Bashevis Singer, was born in 1893 in Bilgoraji, Poland, the second of four children of a rabbi. At the age of two, he moved with his family to Leoncin, the scene of his memoir, Of a World That Is No More. In 1916 he contributed to Yiddish newspapers in Warsaw and then in Kiev, and in the latter city his short story “Pearls” was published, which brought him immediate recognition. In 1921 I. J. Singer was hired as a correspondent for the Jewish Daily Forward. This association lasted until the author’s death, and his articles were compiled in 
the book, New Russia. In 1927 he wrote his first novel, Steel and Iron, which was followed, five years later, by Yoshe Kalb. I. J. Singer came to the United States in 1934. He died in New York on February 10, 1944.

This is the only one of his novels in print as a Kindle.

Mel u
Ambrosia Bousweau

Wednesday, May 8, 2019

"Leave, Gentle Magic" - A Short Story by Neera Kashyap - Spring, 2018 - Paper Cuts Magazine

"Leave, Gentle Spirit" by Neera Kashyap is a fascinating story narrated by an American ethnographer living in a small village in the Himalayas. Her mission there is to develop an in-depth understanding of the culture, folkways, religious beliefs and customs of women in the village, she learned to speak Hindi, widely spoken in the area.  As much as possible she lives like the women she is researching..

(Ethnographic research is an approach that looks at: people in their cultural setting; ... their language, and the symbols, rituals and shared meanings that populate their world, with the object of producing a narrative account of that particular culture, against a theoretical backdrop.)

We can see how she preceives her mission:

"Like many ethnographers, I had learnt to live like the women I researched, becoming a part of their lives and their seasons. A year and a half and I could walk long distances like them, use the sickle and carry headloads of grass like the younger girls, even a bucket of water on my head without getting splashed. I learnt to dress like them, to cook the way they did, and to joke in between chores. Early on, I felt it was my white skin that kept me from belonging, but then I saw it was my reserve. I had been ready to leave in three months, at first, but not anymore after I began to relax. Now my life in the US felt more like a chimera. And this despite the fact that there was no heating, no running water, no TV, no reliable electricity, no entertainment, and food utterly different from what I was used to."

Ethnographers are not aloof observers studying their subjects from a blind.  Ellen lives among the women she was researching.  Slowly the women begin to make observation on Ellen.  They wonder why she wears no gold. I loved this segment:

"Just as I would observe and record my target group — women — I had to submit to being observed and recorded as well. It was from our landlady Mansa Devi’s verandah upstairs that most of the laughter resonated. Sometimes, I was made to sit on a low stool so my hair could be massaged with mustard oil as it had been pronounced “too dry.” There was genuine astonishment that I wore no gold. One evening, some of the women put their own ornaments on me — necklaces of varying length, dangling earrings, bracelets, armlets, toe-rings, revealing my “beauty” to me in a cracked discoloured mirror.
Mansa Devi was struck by a thunderous thought. “But why are you not married still? Is there no one to arrange a match for you?” she asked.
“Maybe she is not marriageable,” Panna slyly suggested. Neema flew at her for her rudeness and tried to calm my ‘ruffled feathers’, but Mansa Devi came up with a solution: “Maybe we should find you a match. Not like us. Someone like you who is always writing, writing, writing… also who can talk like you in English… chutter putter chutter putter… there are men like that in our bigger towns… we will see.”

Kashyap elegantly individuates the personalities of the women.  The region has few economic opportunities so most of the husbands are working in big cities or in the army, coming home maybe for two weeks of the year.  The women run the households, take care of a few animals and usually a small plot of ground.

As the women begin to become comfortable with Ellen, she is able to learn more about their culture.  Here is a beautiful story about a song:

"“It’s a nyoli — a forest song,” she finally offered. “A sad song, like when you miss somebody, no? Ghughuteeis a sort of bird. She sits on the branch of a mango tree. The singer feels sad when the ghughuteesings because the singing reminds her of her husband. He is in the army and posted far away in snowy Ladakh. There is war and she worries. It is the season of chait — you know chait? Spring! She misses him more because it is spring and everything looks beautiful. She wishes she had the ghughutee’swings to fly to him, to look at his face to her heart’s content. She knows she can’t… so she tells the ghughutee to do her a favor… to fly to her husband and tell him all that she feels for him.”

The women are all going tommorow to a religious ritual designed to drive what we can call evil spirits from a woman.  They tell Ellen she may attend as long as she is not mensursting, if so she would poison the ritual.

There is a long account of the jagar:

"The story behind this jagar had done the rounds, so I was familiar with it. In Mansa Devi’s natal village in the valley below, an eighteen-year-old girl, Phula, had been possessed by the spirit of an old female relative who had died even before Phula was born. For two months, Phula acted increasingly crazy. While working in the fields, she would take off into the forest and disappear for hours together, only to return home looking wild, with no memory of the events of the day. She had eating disorders and often felt that an old woman was reaching for her. When she began to babble incoherently, her mother forced Phula to articulate what she could about what was going on with her.
Phula said it was an old woman, related to them through marriage, who’d possessed her. This woman had two daughters and no son. The daughters had married and moved away. The old woman had died both a widow and alone and had been unhappy at death. By the time one of her daughters could reach the village, the deceased woman’s house and land had been appropriated by her husband’s male relatives — Phula’s ancestors. The ghost wanted justice for her daughters who were still alive. Until then, she would stay in possession of Phula’s body and mind."

As the story closes Ellen is back in her apartment in the city, speaking with
a founder of an NGO devoted to helping the women Ellen studied:

"I stared at my desk – a flurry of papers, clothbound notebooks, writing pads, and stacks of red spiral notebooks. I read and re-read my session with Kamla Behnwhose name was underlined in my notebook in red: founder of NGO Sahaj, activist for livelihoods and health rights, my guide and mentor. At first, I had spent months with her and her staff, trying to understand the issues that affected the women.

Kamla Behnhad dismissed ghost-possession as superstition, not to be encouraged. She reeled off statistics on how this increased mortality rates especially in villages, as people simply would not take the sick to scientifically trained doctors or hospitals without the express permission of the family priest. Their spirit possession theory is not limited to cases of mental illness but extends to physical illness as well, she had said, her face warm with passion."

As I read this I thought of my wife's stories of native faith healers in very rural Zambales able to cure illnesses highly educated physicians could not.  I know mapped over western science and Catholicism is something much older which gives strength.  To discount it is a mistake I don't make.

"Leave, Gentle Spirit" is a wonderful work, deeply informed and wise.  It deals with cultural divisions and gives us a look at life within the Himilayan region. 

Neera Kashyap has worked as a newspaper journalist, as researcher and editor on environment and health, and as social and health communications specialist. She has published a book for young adults with Rupa & Co. titled Daring to Dream, 2003. Her stories for children have been included in five prize-winning anthologies published by Children’s Book Trust. As a literary writer of creative essays, poems and short fiction, her work has appeared in various online and print literary journals including Out of Print journal & Blog, Earthen Lamp Journal, The Bombay Literary Magazine, Muse India, Reading Hour and are forthcoming in Indian Literature and Papercuts. She lives in Delhi.

Next month we plan to post upon another of her short stories, "Quiet as a Feather", from India Review, 2018.  The link is below

We hope to feature Neera Kashyap many more times.

Oleander Bouswesu
Mel u